Senin, 29 Juli 2013

Vipaka: The Results of Karma (sutra)

Dhr. Seven, Ashley Wells, CC Liu, Wisdom Quarterly translation based on Ajahn Thanissaro translation Vipaka Sutta (AN 8.40)

(safeerbandali/flickr.com)
"Meditators, taking life -- when indulged in, practiced, and developed -- leads to perdition, and/or to rebirth in the animal realm, and the realm of hungry ghosts.*
 
The least negative results from the taking of life is that, if and when one again is reborn among humans, this karma will result in a shortened life span.
 
"Taking what is not given -- indulged in, practiced, and developed -- leads to perdition, and/or to rebirth in the animal realm, to the realm of hungry ghosts. The least negative results from taking what is not given is that, if and when one is again reborn among humans, this karma will result in the loss of wealth.
 
"Illicit sexual conduct -- indulged in, practiced, and developed -- leads to perdition, and/or to rebirth in the animal realm, the realm of hungry ghosts. The least negative results from illicit sexual conduct is that, if and when one is again reborn among humans, this karma will result in rivalry and revenge.
 
"False speech [perjury, divisive speech, harsh speech, idle speech] -- indulged in, practiced, and developed -- leads to perdition, and/or rebirth in the animal realm, the realm of hungry ghosts. The least negative results from false speech are that, if and when one is again reborn among humans, this karma will result in being falsely accused.
 
"Divisive speech -- indulged in, practiced, and developed -- leads to perdition, and/or rebirth in the animal realm, the realm of hungry ghosts. The least negative results from speaking falsely is that, if and when one is again reborn among humans, this karma will result in the breaking of one's friendships.
 
Mystery of rebirth (androgynylist.com)
"Harsh speech -- indulged in, practiced, and developed -- leads to perdition, and/or rebirth in the animal realm, the realm of hungry ghosts. The least negative results from harsh speech is that, if and when one is again reborn among humans, it leads to unappealing sounds.

"Frivolous speech (idle chatter) -- indulged in, practiced, and developed -- leads to perdition, and/or to rebirth in the animal realm, to the realm of hungry ghosts. The least negative results from frivolous speech are that, if and when one is again reborn among humans, it leads to words not worth taking to heart.
 
"Taking intoxicants (drinking liquor) -- indulged in, practiced, and developed -- leads to perdition, and/or rebirth in the animal realm, the realm of hungry ghosts. The least negative results from taking intoxicants are that, if and when one is again reborn as a human, it leads to derangement."

*Karma, my Karma
WISDOM QUARTERLY COMMENTARY
One should not err in thinking that such a "course of conduct" is immediately exhausted simply by rebirth in an unfortunate realm or by a great deal of suffering from spending thousands of years in that realm. The effects of a single action are redounding. Karma does not mean "cause and effect," the Newtonian law. It is almost nothing like that. It is like pushing over a domino or dropping a stone in a still pond. The results and fruits (vipaka and phala) of the action (karma) can be known in general, but the full working out is incomprehensible. Even though Christians say, "God works in mysterious ways," it would be much appropriate to say that of impersonal karma, our own actions leading to their own results which then serve as the causes and conditions of further volitions. Nor is it appropriate to think that "intention" (cetana) means what we intend to happen. It simply means the motivation behind a purposeful act of mind, tongue, or body -- which colors that action and determines the result. All harmful, unprofitable, unbeneficial, unwholesome acts stem from only three roots; the same may be said for all helpful, profitable, beneficial, wholesome acts. Liking, disliking, and ignorance are the unwholesome roots; the names of the categories are more ominous: greed, hatred, delusion. And we blindly consider ourselves innocent of those extremes not realizing that they are simply the titles of three categories of action: craving, aversion, and wrong view. Everything good stems from three other very general categories: nongreed, nonhatred, and nondelusion. One need not "believe" in karma for it to be true. The unintended results, good and bad, will nevertheless come. Yet, doing good because one believes in karma is more beneficial than simply doing good, perhaps because the good action is accompanied by right view to that extent. The results are not likely to be seen for quite some time, so some degree of confidence is necessary to keep doing good. If one acts with the expectation that one will see an immediate result in line with that action, one is likely to be sorely disappointed and may fall under the wrong view that there is no result-of-action, no vipaka, no fruition, no benefit, no consequence, nothing to reap, no reason to further sow.

  • See also AN 4.111, as an example of harsh training. 
  • School of Natural Healing, learning use of HERBS with Dr. Christopher ("Something's Happening," July 24, 2013, KPFK.org Archives, 12:00-1:00 am)

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